Thursday, May 03, 2018 by Michelle Simmons
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria are spread through the urine of infected animals, which can get into water or soil and can continue to live for weeks to months. The animals that can carry the bacterium include cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, rodents, and wild animals. When these animals are infected, symptoms of the disease may not be evident. Moreover, infected animals may continue to spread the bacteria into the environment continuously or every once in a while for several months up to a few years.
Humans can be infected through contact with urine or other body fluids, except saliva, from infected animals, and through contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin, eyes, nose, or mouth, especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. In addition, drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Leptospirosis outbreaks are typically caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. On the other hand, person to person transmission is rare.
The known side effects of leptospirosis range in severity from a mild illness suggesting a viral infection to a multisystemic syndrome with unique features. These may include high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches and muscle pain, fatigue, sore throat, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, pain in the joints or muscles, rash, and reddish eyes. These can arise about two days to four weeks after exposure to bacteria. In some cases, these symptoms go away and do not progress to the second phase. The second-phase symptoms may overlap with the first-phase symptoms in severe disease and may include jaundice, kidney damage, pulmonary hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, pneumonitis, and septic shock. This second phase of leptospirosis is known as Weil’s disease.
If leptospirosis remained untreated, it can lead to life-threatening kidney failure. If the brain is affected, meningitis, encephalitis, or both may occur. Meningitis is an infection of the outer layer of the brain, while encephalitis is the infection of brain tissue. Severe leptospirosis can lead to other complications, such as thrombocytopenia, liver failure, spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, liver failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, rhabdomyolysis, eye problems, adult respiratory distress syndrome, hypotension, Kawasaki disease, erythema nodosum, myocarditis, and congestive heart failure.
The body system mainly harmed by leptospirosis is the immune system.
There is no information on what foods or nutrients prevent leptospirosis.
The common treatment for leptospirosis is the use of antibiotics. However, there are home remedies available for leptospirosis. These include glucose and salt solution drinks, tea tree oil, ginger, andrographis, smilax, probiotics, prebiotics, oregano oil, and turmeric. It is also advised to avoid foods rich in iron and calcium.
Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira.
Leptospirosis causes high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches and muscle pain, fatigue, sore throat, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, pain in the joints or muscles, rash, and reddish eyes.
Leptospirosis can lead to jaundice, kidney damage, pulmonary hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, pneumonitis, and septic shock.
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