Chlorfenapyr — toxicity, side effects, diseases and environmental impacts

Friday, December 08, 2017 by

Chlorfenapyr is a pesticide used to control many insects and mites, especially those that are resistant to carbamate, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds. A substance of synthetic origin, chlorfenapyr’s mode of action is limited systemic activity, mainly through the stomach but with some contact action. It is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation.

Chlorfenapyr is derived from a class of microbially produced compounds called halogenated pyrrole. Examples of recorded resistance to chlorfenapyr are Earias vittella and Tetranychus urticae. Chlorfenapyr appears either as a white, light tan, or light yellow powdery solid.

Chlorfenapyr’s trade names and identifiers include:

  • 122453-73-0
  • Pirate
  • Kotetsu
  • Pylon
  • Pirate 3F
  • 4-Bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile
  • Chlorfenapyr [ISO]
  • AC 303630
  • CL 303630
  • HSDB 7464
  • CHEBI:39347
  • CWFOCCVIPCEQCK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • 1H-Pyrrole-3-carbonitrile, 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-
  • 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrole-3-carbonitrile
  • AK-47777
  • 4-Bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-carbonitrile
  • C15H11BrClF3N2O
  • UNII-NWI20P05EB
  • CCRIS 9252
  • Perdeuteriochrysene

List of known side effects

Chlorfenapyr is harmful if swallowed. It causes eye irritation and it is toxic if inhaled. Chlorfenapyr may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. It is very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects.

Chlorfenapyr is not explosive.

Body systems affected by chlorfenapyr

Chlorfenapyr is a moderate but reversible eye irritant. However, it is not a skin irritant.

The acute toxicity of four metabolites to rats was determined. Of those tested only AC 303,268 resulted in higher toxicity than the parent compound (e.g., combined sex LD50s of 28.7 and 626 milligrams per kilogram [mg/kg] for metabolite and parent, respectively). Of the 40 rats exposed to AC 303,268 at concentrations higher than 31.25 mg/kg, 39 died within eight hours of dosing. Mortality occurred at a slower rate in tests with the other three metabolites but still most was observed within three days.

Survivors of exposure to the metabolites exhibited no lasting clinical effects or notable findings during gross necropsy. There were no weight changes reported for survivors. Clinical signs reported for exposure to the metabolites included decreased activity, prostration, ptosis, increased salivation, and diuresis. Abnormalities noted at necropsy included discolored livers and spleens, discolored and distended stomachs, and gas-filled gastrointestinal tracts. Striated muscle tissue was reported in animals killed by AC 303,268.

Slight to moderate redness of conjunctivae and slight ocular discharge were noted in a primary eye irritation study in rabbits. However, all signs of irritation were resolved by 24 hours. Chlorfenapyr was considered practically non-irritating.

Items that can contain chlorfenapyr

Chlorfenapyr is used to control pests such as spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and fungus gnats. It is applied on plants such as tomatoes, greenhouse plants and ornamentals, and outdoor container nurseries.

How to avoid chlorfenapyr

Occupational exposure to chlorfenapyr may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where chlorfenapyr is produced or used. The general population may be exposed to chlorfenapyr via the ingestion of food and dermal contact with this compound near fields where chlorfenapyr is applied.

Avoid getting chlorfenapyr in the eyes, on the skin, or on clothing. Do not breathe chlorfenapyr vapor or mist. After handling chlorfenapyr, wash thoroughly with soap and water.

When working with chlorfenapyr, wear items of protective clothing such as non-absorbent gloves (not leather or fabric), rubber footwear (not canvas or leather), a hat, goggles, or a dust-mist filter. If no specific clothing is listed, gloves, long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and closed shoes are recommended.

Where to learn more

Summary

Chlorfenapyr is a pesticide used to control many insects and mites, especially those that are resistant to carbamate, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds.

Chlorfenapyr is harmful if swallowed. It causes eye irritation and it is toxic if inhaled. Chlorfenapyr may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. It is very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects.

Chlorfenapyr is used to control pests such as spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and fungus gnats. It is applied on greenhouse ornamentals.

Sources include:

Sitem.Herts.AC.uk

PubChem.NCBI.NLM.NIH.gov

ToxNet.NLM.NIH.gov

 



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